little capability heaters


4    Opacity of the smoke shouldn’t exceed 20% Viewed from 50 meters with naked eyes
EM    = Measured emission concentration

Vanadium                                     V
Arsenic                                       As
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2.     Be fitted with secondary burner/s burning gas or low sulphur liquid fuel or any suitable fuel.

3.     Ensure secondary air supply is controlled efficiently.
The Combustion efficiency is computed as follows;

C.E=% CO2           x 100
Tin                                               Sn
Cobalt                                         Co
Lead                                            Pb
Copper                                        Cu
3.     The inclusion of dilution air after combustion in order to achieve the requirement of these guidelines is unacceptable.

4.     The minimum exit rate should be 10 m/s and at least twice the surrounding wind speed (Efflux velocity = wind speed x 2) whichever is greater to make sure no down washing of exiting gases.

5.     Point for the measurement of emissions shall be offered.

7    Instrumentation    Instrument for determining the interior wall temperature and not burner flame temperature has to be given for both primary and secondary chambers.

2.     An audible and visible alarm must be set up to warn the operator once the secondary temperature drops to below the required temperature.

3.     Besides the above the following instruments may also be required.
Hydrofluoric acid                         HF
6    Chimney / Stack    1.     The chimney should have a minimum height of 10 meters above ground level and clear the maximum point of the building by not less than 3 meters for all roofs. The topography and height of adjacent buildings within 50 meters radius ought to be taken into consideration.

2.     If possible the chimney needs to be visible to the operator in the feeding area.{
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21 – OM

Where:    Es    = Calculated emission concentration in the standard percentage oxygen concentration
4.     The incinerator must not be overcharged.
Wout = mass emission rate of POHC from the stack before the release to the atmosphere.

8.     The average dioxin and furan concentration in the emissions should not exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.

Acid Gas Scrubbers
Manganese                                  Mn
Os    = Regular oxygen concentration
4.     Have fly ash containerization and storage before disposal.

12    Health & Safety (Protective Gear)    1.     Staff managing waste must be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
3.     Whenever the preceding charge has not been completely combusted in the case of batch feeding.

4.     Until such time as the inclusion of more waste won’t cause the layout parameters of the incinerator to be surpassed.

3    Main Combustion Chamber    The main combustion chamber must:

1.     Be accepted as the main combustion zone.
4.     Ensure flame contact with gases is achieved.
Where: Win = mass feed rate of the POHC from the waste stream fed to incinerator, and
Feed chamber/ charging
Any other device or measurement that may be considered necessary

8    Location / Siting    1.     Must be sited in accordance with the relevant local municipal authority planning scheme, the topography of the Region and be compatible with premises in the neighborhood,

2.     Has to be housed in a suitably ventilated room. Combustion efficiency:

Combustion efficiency (CE) shall be at least 99.00%
Mercury                                      Hg
Barium                                        Ba
Sulphur dioxide                           S02

7.     A 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) in the waste feed where:

DRE = [(Win – Wout)/Win]*100
Silver                                          Ag
A solid particulate meter/recorder
Primary Combustion Chamber.
Beryllium                                    Be
The stack/ chimney.

1    Fundamental Plant Design    An approved plant has to have four distinct sections that demonstrate three fundamentals of Turbulence, Residence Time and Temperature are inbuilt in the plant layout .The regulated sections may include but not limited to:

Overall plant layout.
2.      Staff must be provided with proper protective equipment such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles.

3.      Caution and Warning signs must be provided.

7.     Ensure the oxygen content of the emitted gases is not less than 11%.
5.      There should be no drinking or smoking on the site.

A gas flow meter/recorder
5.     The incinerator must be in good working order at all times and must not be used if any part fails. Any malfunction ought to be recorded in a log book and reported to the relevant authority.

6.     The incinerator operator and all relevant personnel must be trained to the satisfaction of the relevant control authority.

11    Housekeeping    The site where the incinerator is built must:

1.     Have running water.
2.     If the minimum combustion temperatures are not maintained.
4.      Fire fighting equipment must be provided
5.     All the emission to the air other than steam or water vapour has to be odourless and free from mist, fume and droplets.

6.     The Authority may require that the certificate holder have tests carried out by an accredited institution to ascertain stack and/or ground level concentrations of the following substances.

Cadmium and compounds as     Cd
Electrostatic precipitators
5.     Ensure residence time isn’t less than two (2) minutes.
OM    = measured oxygen concentration

10    Operation    1.     Materials destined for incineration should be of known origin and makeup and have to be just incinerated in a furnace that is registered for the specific sort of waste.

2.     A record must be kept of the amount, type and source of the waste to be incinerated.
8.     Ensure both main and the combustion temperatures are maintained until all waste has been completely combusted

5    Particulate Removers    A mechanical particulate collector has to be incorporated after secondary combustion chamber for removal of particulate pollutants entrained in the flue gas flow.
2.     Have a solid floor.
Particulate Scrubbers
Fabric filters
3.     Have lighting if 24hrs operation
All pollutant concentrations have to be expressed at Oo C and 1.013 x 10 5 N/m2, dry gas and 11% oxygen correction.

Oxygen correction is computed as:

Es =     21 — Os    x EM
2.     Be equipped with a burner/s burning gas/fuel or low sulphur liquid fuels. Other combustion methods will be judged on merits.

3.     Ensure main air supply is controlled efficiently
2    Feeding And Charging    Controlled hygienic, mechanical or automatic feeding methods must be used which won’t influence the air temperature in the primary and secondary chambers of the incinerator negatively.

No waste is to be fed into the incinerator:

1.     Until the minimum temperatures are reached.
Antimony                                    Sb
4.     Ensure minimal exit temperature is not less than 850oC

4    Secondary Combustion Chamber (Afterburner).     The secondary combustion chamber must:

1.     Be accepted as secondary combustion zone.
3.     The incinerator has to be preheated to working temperature before charging any waste.
Thallium                                     Tl

Chromium                                  Cr
A smoke density meter/recorder|Antimony                                    Sb
A solid particulate meter/recorder
Copper                                        Cu
The Combustion efficiency is computed as follows;

C.E=% CO2           x 100
The stack/ chimney.
2.      Staff must be provided with proper protective equipment such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles.

3.      Caution and Warning signs must be provided.
4.      Fire fighting equipment must be provided
4.     The incinerator must not be overcharged.
Manganese                                  Mn{
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A smoke density meter/recorder
2.     Be equipped with a burner/s burning gas/fuel or low sulphur liquid fuels. Other combustion methods will be judged on merits.